2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or just DNP) is a natural compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. It is a yellow, crystalline strong that has a sweet, moldy odor. It sublimes, is unpredictable with steam, and is soluble in most organic solvents in addition to liquid alkaline services. When in a dry type, it is a high explosive and has an instant surge hazard. It is a precursor to other chemicals and is biochemically active, preventing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in cells with mitochondria.
Commercially, DNP is utilized as an antiseptic and as a non-selective bioaccumulating pesticide.
DNP is especially beneficial as a herbicide together with other carefully related dinitrophenol herbicides like 2,4-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC), dinoseb and dinoterb. Given that 1998 DNP was withdrawn from agricultural usage. Presently, there are no actively registered pesticides containing DNP in US or Europe.
It is a chemical intermediate in the production of sulfur dyes, wood preservatives and picric acid. DNP has likewise been used to make photographic developers and explosives. DNP is categorized as a dynamite in the UK and USA.
In living cells, DNP functions as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen cations) across biological membranes. It dissipates the proton gradient across mitochondria and chloroplast membranes, collapsing the proton motive force that the cell uses to produce the majority of its ATP chemical energy. Instead of producing ATP, the energy of the proton gradient is lost as heat.
DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is typically produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat. The ineffectiveness is proportional to the dose of DNP that is taken. As the dosage increases and energy production is made more inefficient, metabolic rate boosts (and more fat is burned) in order to compensate for the inadequacy and to meet energy demands. DNP is most likely the best understood representative for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The “phosphorylation” of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by ATP synthase gets disconnected or “uncoupled” from oxidation.
“Dinitrophenol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, causes release of calcium from mitochondrial shops and avoids calcium re-uptake. This causes free intracellular calcium and triggers muscle contraction and hyperthermia. Dantrolene prevents calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum which minimizes intracellular calcium. The resulting muscle relaxation allows heat dissipation. There is little risk to dantrolene administration. Because dantrolene may work in minimizing hyperthermia brought on by agents that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation, early administration may improve outcome.
DNP was widely utilized in explosive mixtures around the globe. Shellite in the UK, Tridite in the US, Tridita in Spain, MDPC/DD in France, MABT/MBT in Italy, and DNP in the USSR.
Nowadays, DNP is offered mainly online under a number of different names such as ‘DNP’, ‘Dinosan’, ‘Dnoc’, ‘Solfo Black’, ‘Nitrophen’, ‘Aldifen’ and ‘Chemox’. The chemical is a yellow crystalline powder that has a sweet, moldy smell and is soluble in water. The dose of DNP per pill differs from site to website however it is most frequently offered as either 100- or 200-mg pills. Some internet sites have DNP available in bulk quantities, permitting users to buy kilograms of DNP powder or hundreds/thousands of DNP-containing tablets.
DNP has actually been offered for over a century, at first in the manufacture of munitions, due to its explosive residential or commercial properties. From the 1930s onwards, there has actually been interest in its homes to increase the underlying metabolic rate, leading to an associated weight-loss. It appears that there has actually been increasing interest and schedule of DNP-containing products on the internet.